Microlife: Protozoa

Protozoa are ancestral to the other eukaryote kingdoms rather than a complete evolutionary group in themselves. Traditionally most single-celled organisms that feed by ingestion were placed here, but many of the best-known belong with the Chromista, leaving a somewhat heterogeneous collection of groups that do not fit anywhere else.

Phylum Euglenozoa

Euglenozoa are a large group of flagellates that share a common cell structure with 1-4 flagella containing internal rods, which arise from a depression and are often associated with a mouth. However, these features are not apparent in many smaller types, which are mostly bacterivores or endosymbionts.

Euglenoids include some more conspicuous kinds, most common in nutrient-rich water. Their flagella are set in an anterior reservoir, and their outer membrane is supported by longitudinal strips, forming a pellicle that helps them maintain or change their shape. Different types feed by ingestion, absorption, or photosynthesis.

Phagotrophic euglenoids usually have feeding rods to help them ingest food such as bacteria, other euglenoids and algae, or dead material. They often have one leading and one trailing flagellum, with different types using one or the other to glide over surfaces.

Peranema
Stormwater ponds - about 65 µm

Peranema

Greek pēra, pouch, nēma, thread
Angl. PER-a-NEE-ma

Peranema have a stiff leading flagellum, held forwards and beating only near the tip. The other is fused to the cell, which is plastic and cylindrical with a rounded posterior.

Anisonema
Marsh sample - body about 30 µm

Anisonema

Greek anisos, unequal, nēma, thread
Angl. a-NYE-so-NEE-ma

Anisonema are oval with a deep reservoir behind the front. The trailing flagellum runs back through a furrow and well past the cell, so that it can quickly pull back and change direction.

Photosynthetic euglenoids are mostly bright green, with small chloroplasts originally taken from green algae and a red eyespot near the flagella. Most belong to the Euglenida, where only one flagellum extends out of the reservoir. This undergoes a looping motion, pulling them along a slightly helical path.

Lepocinclis
Fish Creek - about 155 µm

Lepocinclis

Greek lepos, rind, kigklis, lattice
Angl. LEP-o-SINK-lis

Lepocinclis are ovoid to long with small plastids and a sharp posterior spine. The pellicle may be capable of bending but not deforming and often has prominent helical grooves.

Phacus
Duck pond - about 75 µm

Phacus

Greek phakos, lentil or lens
Angl. FAY-kus

Phacus are mostly broad and leaf-shaped with a tail spine. Such cells are either flattened or divided into thin lobes, often somewhat twisted around the main axis.

Euglena
Meltwater puddle - about 160 µm

Euglena

Greek eus, good, glēnē, eyeball
Angl. yoo-GLEE-na

Euglena have a deformable pellicle allowing metaboly, a slow creeping movement by worm-like contractions. They are mainly distinguished by plastid or molecular features.

These vary in size and form, and some have blunt or acute ends without the tapering spine typical of similar genera. They also include some that become red in certain conditions.

Colacium
Duck pond - bodies about 20-25 µm

Colacium

Greek kolax, flatterer, -ion, dimn.
Angl. ko-LAY-seeum

Colacium live attached to small crustaceans or other objects, most forming branching colonies with relatively thick stalks. The cells are oval with an eyespot near the base.

Trachelomonas
Duck pond - about 30 µm

Trachelomonas

Greek trachēlos, neck, monas, unit
Angl. TRAK-e-LOM-o-nas

Trachelomonas are enclosed by a protective lorica, which is rounded or spiny and usually brownish. This has a small opening for the flagellum, often with a short but distinct collar.

Phylum Percolozoa

Heterolobosea
Stream sample - about 50 µm

Heterolobosea

Greek heteros, different, lobos, lobe

These are mainly small protozoa that transform between flagellates in rapid movement, and amoebae in feeding. However some only have one form or the other.

The amoebae are eruptive, moving through rapid bursts along the front margin. This separates them from other groups which move by continuous streaming.

Phylum Amoebozoa

Amoebozoa generally move by internal flow of the cell body, which happens more or less continuously, rather than thinner pseudopodia or eruptions. They have no constant shape, but most have a fairly characteristic type of form during directed movement. Many of the largest protozoa, like slime molds, belong here.

Discosea are flattened amoebae that move as a whole, with a clear front margin that acts as a single pseudopodium. Some also have more or less pointed sub-pseudopodia, projections that are not directly involved in movement, or a protective coating.

Thecamoeba
Marsh sample - about 60 µm

Thecamoeba

Greek thēkē, case, amoibē, change
Angl. THEK-a-MEE-ba

Thecamoeba are longer than wide and have a thickened coat. This is reflected by dorsal folds, either in parallel ridges running along the back or as irregular wrinkles in larger types.

Mayorella
Stormwater ponds - about 70 µm

Mayorella

After Alfred Mayor, 1868-1922
Angl. MAY-or-EL-a

Mayorella move with a thin front margin that forms several sub-pseudopodia. These are commonly short and conical, rather than finger-shaped like in other families.

Tubulinea are typically amoebae that move using blunt projections, called lobopodia. Smaller kinds are usually cylindrical but may spread out during feeding. Larger ones have multiple lobopodia, and often form protective shells from various secretions or collected debris.

Polychaos
Fish Creek - about 120 µm wide

Polychaos

Greek polys, many, chaos, unformed mass
Angl. po-LIK-ay-os

Polychaos are mainly short and palmate with a number of lobopodia of similar size. These can flow together as the cell moves, instead of all but one eventually retracting.

Mediolus corona
Stormwater ponds - about 135 µm

Mediolus

After Franco Medioli, 1935-2014
Angl. MED-ee-OH-lus

Mediolus make spherical shells from selected mineral particles. There is a round opening with a margin of inward teeth, and usually several hollow spines around the opposite end.

Netzelia
Marsh sample - shell about 105 µm

Netzelia

After Harald Netzel, published c. 1970s
Angl. net-ZEE-leea

Netzelia have oval shells with a thick lobed rim around the opening. The rest is partly clear but rough, made from fine silicate granules with or without any attached debris.

Arcella
Marsh sample - shell about 120 µm

Arcella

Latin arca, box, -ella, dimn.
Angl. ar-SEL-a

Arcella have round cap-shaped shells opening in a central circle. They are made entirely from secreted material, starting out clear and becoming brown and dark as they age.

Centropyxis
Marsh sample - shell about 95 µm

Centropyxis

Greek kentron, tip, pyxis, box
Angl. SEN-tro-PIK-sis

Centropyxis make wedge-shaped shells with both secreted and collected material. The opening is set near the front and they often have several spines along the back margin.